Hair is a filamentous development of dead cells from the skin discovered just on warm blooded animals. There are two sorts of hair – (1) the lanugo (vellus) hair and (2) the terminal hair.There are contrasts in rate of development, structure, length and reactions to different boosts for hairs in body. Guys are having more terminal hairs especially on face, mid-section, mid-region, legs, arms while females are having more vellus hairs. Normal humanhas 100,000 hair fol1icles. Every follicle can develop around 20 singular hairs in a man’s lifetime. Normal male pattern baldness is around 100 strands a day. Essential segment of hair fiber is keratine. (1)
Life structures of Hair
Hair is a subordinate of epidermis. Hair is made out of two sections
(1) Hair Root (Inside the epidermis)
The hair globule, the lowermost segment of the root, is an extended mass of epithelial cells which offer ascent to various sorts of keratinized cells. The upper part of the globule creates the medulla of the hair, the hair cortex, and the hair fingernail skin. The fingernail skin cells of the hair and those of the inner sheath are interdigitated, a course of action which secures the hair in the follicle.
(2) Hair Shaft (Outside the epidermis)
The fingernail skin cells cover each other to shape a tight imbricated “container” containing the cortex. The fusiform keratinized cells of the cortex are firmly organized in the long pivot. (2)
Hair development cycles: – Three stages
1. Anagen (Growth Phase): During this stage the hair is effectively developing. The development stage is of around 2-6 years.
Catagen (Transitional stage): This stage keeps going around 3 to 4 weeks. The dermal papilla gathers and cells of the follicle quit developing.
Telogen (Resting Phase): During this stage the dermal papilla gets to be disengaged in the dermal territory. This stage endures around 2 to 3 weeks. (3)
Trademark Features of Hairs
Physical properties of hair
1. Versatility: Hair can oppose powers that could changes its shape, its volume or its length. The flexibility of hair relies on upon the long keratin strands in the cortex. Both characteristic daylight and fake bright light separate chemicals in the hair and harm its flexibility.
2. Friction based electricity: When dry hair is rubbed, static electric energize expands on the hairs. This is particularly observable in hot, dry climate. The outcome is flyaway hair, which emerges from the head and looks unmanageable.
3. Dampness Content:
In warmth and dampness – more dampness, less friction based electricity, breakdown.
In dry condition – less dampness, more electricity produced via friction, more volume.
At the point when hair is wet the cortex swells and the edges of the fingernail skin scales tend to lift.
4. Porosity: The fingernail skin covering the cortex is in place, and is then practically waterproof. Expanding the temperature, or applying a basic cream, isolates the sizes of the fingernail skin enough to permit the chemicals to go through.
5. Surface: Much of the fascination of a lovely head of hair lies in its composition, or feel. Surface of hair relies on upon a few things. The first is the normal measurement of the individual hairs. Furthermore, diverse individuals’ hair actually feels distinctive. Thirdly, the surface is influenced by the level of weathering of hair.
6. pH; The perfect pH sof hair is somewhere around 4.5 and 5.5. Above 5.5 the hair begins to open and underneath 4.5 it begins to contract. (4)
Concoction structure of hair
Human hair is an unpredictable fiber made up of different morphological parts and diverse synthetic species. Distinctive compound segments in the human hair act together, to keep up the ordinary stream of capacities.
1. Protein: Human hair contains around 83-87% proteins. Protein is the most critical component and is available all through the hair from root to tip. Hair, from its development under the skin of the scalp, is loaded with a stringy protein called keratin. A large portion of the keratinous proteins are available inside the cortical cells. The keratin protein found in hair is called “hard” keratin. (5)
2. Water: Water substance is around 7%. It advances ordinary and sound hair development and gives solid hair appearance. When it is impregnated with water the weight increments by 12-18%. (4)
3. Hair Lipids: It is around 3% in hair. Hair lipids are made out of unsaturated fat, ceramide, cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate. The lipid substance of the hair is not steady but rather shifts with age and different components. (4)
4. Hair Pigments: These are around 2% in hair. Melanin is the hair shade which offers shading to the hair. They are created by a gathering of specific cells called melanocytes. Eumelanin type of melanin gives diverse shades extending from dark to cocoa. Phaeomelanin gives yellow, ginger and red shades to the hair. (5)
5. Follow Elements: Other than these critical components, the synthetic creation of hair additionally contains follow components which are essentials for its solid usefulness. These components are Al, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn, and so forth (4)
Denaturation of Hair
Denaturation disturbs the typical alpha-helix and beta sheets in a protein and uncoils it into an irregular shape. Denaturation happens in light of the fact that the holding associations in charge of the auxiliary structure (hydrogen bonds to amides) and tertiary structure are upset. The most widely recognized perception in the denaturation procedure is the precipitation or coagulation of the protein. An assortment of reagents and conditions can bring about denaturation;Rebuild Hair Program by Jared Gates is only for $ 39
Liquor Disrupts Hydrogen Bonding.
Acids and Bases Disrupt Salt Bridges.
Overwhelming Metal Salts Disrupt Disulfide Bonds.
Diminishing Agents Disrupt Disulfide Bonds. (6)
1. Alopecia areata
Alopecia areata is viewed as an immune system malady. In alopecia areata, white platelets assault the quickly developing cells in the hair follicles. The influenced hair follicles turn out to be little and definitely back off hair generation. Alopecia is called “Indralupta” or “Khalitya” in Ayurveda. The Kuff with blood squares hair papilla so hairs are not created and Alopecia is delivered.
Dandruff causes because of slick skin, shampooing as well, a terrible eating routine, and anxiety. Be that as it may, the genuine offender might be fat-eating, yeast like parasite called Malassezia. This outcomes in an expansive number of dead skin cells. Dead cells get to be white and cause “Rucci” in hairs. It is called Darunak in Ayurveda.
3. Untimely Graying of Hair
The physiologic premise for turning gray of the hair is the failure of melanocytes in the hair framework. The turning gray may happen freely of any adjustment in the structure or development of the hair. It is called Palit Rogin Ayurveda.Angerness, Sadness and Hard work produce “Warmth” and “Pitta” in body. These “Warmth” and “Pitta” in the wake of coming to in head make the hairs dark or white in early age.
4. Head Lice
Head lice is a parasitic creepy crawlies discovered most usually behind the ears and close to the neck area in hairs. The restorative term is Pediculus Humanus Capitis. It causes scalp tingling, sensation, red injuries on scalp and so forth. This is called Arunshika in Ayurveda. Due to ‘Kuff, “Pitta” and Worms the hairs get to be feeble and multiheaded with some sebaceous spots.
Folliculitis is the contamination of hair follicles. This can happen anyplace on the skin or scalp. Folliculitis looks like skin inflammation pimples or non-recuperating, dried up bruises.
6. Hirsutism (Excess of hair)-
Hirsutism can be brought about by unusually abnormal amounts of male hormones (androgens). Different side effects incorporate skin break out, developing of the voice and expanded bulk. Ladies who have hirsutism have dim, thick hair all over, mid-section, stomach area and back.The Hair Rebuild Program
TREATMENT OF HAIR DISEASES
1. Alopecia areata
Drugs: Corticosteroids, Minoxidil, Anthralin, Sulfasalazine.
(i) Tugain (5% Minoxidil) by Cipla Pharmaceutical Ltd.
(ii) Multigain (Spray) by Torrent Pharma Ltd.
(iii) Minoxidil Topical Solution by Alpharma Ltd.
(iv) Hisone by Smarth Pharma Ltd. (7)
Drugs: Salicylic corrosive, Selenium Sulfide, Ketoconazole
(i) Clinic All Clear Shampoo by Hindustan Lever Ltd.
(ii) Candid – TV Suspension by Glenmark Pharma Ltd.
(iii) Cetrimide by Nicholas Pharma Ltd.
(iv) Nizoral Shampoo.
3. Untimely Graying of Hair
Drugs: Vitamin (Biotin) Suppliments.
Showcased Product – Bencozyme Forte. (8)
4. Head Lice
Drugs: Lindane, Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole.
(i) Keralice (1 % Permethrin) by Femcare Pvt. Ltd.
(ii) Permisol (5% Pennethrin) by Geolife Sciences Ltd.
(iii) Kwell by Dey’s Pharma Ltd.
(iv) Septra and Bactrim by Nicholas Pharma Ltd.
Drugs: Minocycline, Tetracycline, Ammonium Lactate, Cortisone.
(i) Syno by lndilina Pharma Ltd.
(ii) Bactroban Ointment by Prime Life Science Ltd.
(iii) Tetrasil by Melissa Pharma Ltd.
6. Hirsutism (Excess of hair)-
Drugs: Finasteride, Dexamethasone, Spironolactone.
(i) Ladogal by Aventis Pvt. Ltd.
(ii) Evalon by Infar Pharma Ltd. (9)
1. Indralupta or Khalitya
Drugs: Narikelamrit (Cocos nucifera), Tilashthak, Extract of Tila (Sesamum indicum) leaves and roots, Bhringrajswaras (Eclipta alba) and Bhringraj Taila
(i) Nutrich Oil by Ayu Labs Pvt. Ltd.
(ii) Sessa Oil by Ban Labs Ltd.
(iii) Ambica Hair Tonic by Medi Herbs Pvt. Ltd.
(iv) Bhringraj Taila by Dabur Pvt. Ltd. (9)
Drugs: Bhringraj swaras, Chamalipan (Jasmium officinalis), Bibhitak, Mastak, Patolpatra.
(i) Bhringraj Taila by Dabur Pvt. Ltd.
(ii) Trichup by Vasu Pharma Ltd.
(iii) Shakuntalam Oil by Nagarjun Pvt. Ltd.